Possible Effects of Maternal Behaviour on Foetal Development
Nutrition is the major intrauterine environmental factor that alters expression of the fetal genome and may have lifelong consequences. Namely, alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring, thereby predisposing individuals to metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. Animal studies show that both maternal under nutrition and over nutrition reduce placental-fetal blood flows and stunt fetal growth. Impaired placental syntheses of nitric oxide (a major vasodilator and angiogenesis factor) and polyamines (key regulators of DNA and protein synthesis) may provide a unified explanation for intrauterine growth retardation in response to the 2 extremes of nutritional problems with the same pregnancy outcome. There is growing evidence that maternal nutritional status can al…
Cellulitis - Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, & More
Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the skin. It specifically affects the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Signs and symptoms include an area of redness which increases in size over a couple of days. The borders of the area of redness are generally not sharp and the skin may be swollen. While the redness often turns white when pressure is applied this is not always the case. The area of infection is usually painful. Lymphatic vessels may occasionally be involved and the person may have a fever and feel tired. The legs and face are the most common site involved, though cellulitis can occur on any part of the body. The leg is typically affected following a break in the skin. Other risk factors include obesity, leg swelling, and old age. For face infections a break in the skin beforehand is not usually the case. The bacteria most commonly involved are streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast to cellulitis, e…
Detailed Study on Infertility its Causes and Treatment
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means. It is usually not the natural state of a healthy adult organism, except notably among certain eusocial species (mostly haplodiploid insects).
In humans, infertility may describe a woman who is unable to conceive as well as being unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are many biological and other causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat. Infertility rates have increased by 4% since the 1980s, mostly from problems with fecundity due to an increase in age. About 40% of the issues involved with infertility are due to the man, another 40% due to the woman, and 20% result from complications with both partners.
Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile during the rest of the menstrual cycle. Fertility awareness metho…